Origin of the Term "Rock & Roll"
Rocking was a term first
used by gospel singers in the American South to mean something akin to
spiritual rapture. A double, ironic, meaning came to popular awareness
in 1947 in blues artist Roy Brown's song "Good Rocking Tonight" (also
covered the next year by Wynonie Harris in an even wilder version), in
which "rocking" was ostensibly about dancing but was in fact a
thinly-veiled allusion to sex. Such double-entendres were nothing new in
blues music (which was mostly limited in exposure to jukeboxes and
clubs) but were new to the radio airwaves. After the success of "Good
Rocking Tonight" many other rhythm and blues artists used similar titles
through the late 1940s including a song called "Rock and Roll" recorded
by Wild Bill Moore in 1949. These songs were relegated to "race music"
(the music industry code name for rhythm and blues) outlets and were
barely known by mainstream white audiences. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio
Alan Freed would begin playing this type of music for his white
audience, and it is Freed who is credited with coining the phrase "rock
and roll" to describe the rollicking R&B music that he brought to the
airwaves. The term, with its simultaneous allusions to dancing, sex, and
the sound of the music itself, stuck even with those who didn't absorb
all the meanings.
The First Rock & Roll Record
There are many candidates for the title of the first Rock and Roll
record. Numerous recordings mark the development of rock and roll as a
separate musical form. Some songs are cited as having important lyrical
content, others are seen as offering important melodic, harmonic or
rhythmic influence. These songs include not only hits from the 1950s
when the music emerged on the national and international scene, but also
Wild cards from the 1920s and 1930s that seemed then to have come
from nowhere but now clearly foreshadow rock and roll:
* "My Daddy Rocks Me (with One Good Steady Roll)" by Trixie Smith
(1922). Although it was played with a backbeat and was one of the first
"around the clock" lyrics, this slow minor-key blues was by no means
rock and roll in the modern sense. On the other hand, the title
certainly underscores the original meaning attached to those two words
(both of four letters), rock and roll.
* "Tiger Rag" by the Washboard Rhythm Kings, (1931) virtually out of
control performance with screeching vocals, a strange tiger roar, and
rocking washboard. This recording is standing in for many performances
by spasm bands, jug bands, and skiffle groups that have the same wild,
informal feel that early rock and roll had.
Tunes from the 1930s and 1940s that were early indicators of an
important change in the music world:
* "Roll 'Em Pete" by Pete Johnson and Joe Turner
(1938) driving boogie woogie and a masterful collation of blues verses
* "Flying Home" by Lionel Hampton and his orchestra (1939), tenor sax
solo by Illinois Jacquet, recreated and refined live by Arnett Cobb, the
model for rock and roll solos ever since, emotional, honking, long, not
just an instrumental break but the keystone of the song. (The Benny
Goodman Sextet had a popular hit with a subdued "jazz chamber music"
version of the same song featuring guitarist Charlie Christian.)
* "Rock Me" by the Lucky Millinder Orchestra with Sister Rosetta Tharpe
vocals and guitar, a gospel song done like a city blues
* "I Wonder" by Cecil Gant (1944), an early black ballad performance
that became widely popular, the first of the black tenors.
* "Straighten Up and Fly Right" by Nat King Cole (1946), very light on
the rocking, but a popular hit with lyrics from African American folk
tale, like Bo Diddley, but without the beat
* "Let the Good Times Roll" by Louis Jordan (1946)
* "Oakie Boogie"; by Jack Guthrie (1947)
* "Drinkin' Wine Spo-Dee-O-Dee"; by Stick McGhee and his Buddies (1949)
* "Ragg Mopp" by Johnny Lee Wills and Deacon Anderson (1949), strange
little novelty tune, the lyrics are simply the title spelled out or
yelled out, re-released in 1954 by the Ames Brothers.
The hits from the 1950s typically are seen with an early performance
much in the rhythm and blues style and a later cover performance more in
the rock and roll vein. Often, the first performance was by a black
artist and the second by a white artist. These white covers, while at
the time sometimes disdained as exploitive and derivative, were a
necessary part of the transition of the music. Nor were they all pale
imitations, but sometimes earnest remakes by sympathetic performers, and
more than a few were recognized as superior recordings to the originals.
* "Good Rocking Tonight" (1949) by Roy Brown and Wynonie Harris, both
black artists; Brown's original version is jump blues while Harris's
version is definitely more modern rock and roll. Later heartily covered
by Elvis Presley and less heartily by Pat Boone.
* "The Fat Man" by
Fats Domino (1949), featuring Fats on wah-wah mouth trumpet, the
first of his 35 Top 40 hits.
* "Rock Me to Sleep" written by Benny Carter and Paul Vandervoort II
(1950), recorded by Helen Humes backed by the Marshall Royal Orchestra.
* "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (actually Ike Turner
and the Kings of Rhythm) (1951), and Bill Haley and the Saddlemen (1951)
* "Crazy Man, Crazy", (1953)
Bill Haley and
first rock and roll record on Billboard magazine chart. Not a cover, but
an original. Haley said he heard the phrase at high-school dances his
band was playing.
* "Rock Around the Clock", (1954) by Bill Haley and his Comets, first
number 1 rock and roll record
* "Shake, Rattle and Roll", (1954) by Big Joe Turner, Bill Haley and his
Comets, and Elvis Presley. Haley's version was the first international
hit rock and roll record, actually predating the success of "Rock
Around the Clock" by several months, though it was recorded later.
* "That's All Right (Mama)", (1954) by
this cover of Arthur Crudup's tune was Elvis' first single, and is
possibly the song most often cited (albeit inaccurately) as the first
rock and roll record.
* "Sh-boom" (1954) by the Chords and the Crewcuts, in this case, the
latter was a pale imitation. The song is considered a pioneer of the
* "Maybellene", (1955) by Chuck Berry
In 2004, debate was sparked between fans of Elvis who claimed "That's
All Right Mama" was the first rock and roll song, with those who feel
the proper claimant should be Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock"--both
songs celebrating their 50th anniversaries that year. Rolling Stone
Magazine took the controversial step of unilaterally declaring Elvis'
song the first rock and roll recording, attracting criticism from many